Monday, June 21, 2010

Offshore for 2 weeks

Dear All, right now i'm in the middle of terengganu anything you want to contact me just email me .. i'll update my blog later..see ya

Thursday, June 17, 2010

My daily life

My routine life

On this blog, I just want to share a part of my daily life which is sometimes I would say that routine for past 7 months. As you know, I stay at Bandar baru bangi which is 35km distance from my working place. So, every day I need to wake up early at 6 o’clock in the morning and must depart from my house at 6.30am, can you imagine, this is my routine for past 7 months. Hahahaha

But this night I just want to share about my experience in LRT Putra, because this is one of my favourite public transports. Inside coach, sometimes I saw many different people with different habits and most important on how they think. Hhehe.. Its fun to observe their behaviour inside train..Ha-ha..Sometimes we can saw couple cuddling inside train and most time after peak hour. Not forget some weird people with weird hairstyle.haha..and the most funniest thing I ever see is one of bangla bring his luggage, I think he will be back to his hometown and bring huge luggage, maybe he bring souvenir for parent or bothers and sisters..hehe..but the funny part is he putted his passport size picture at his beg and he placed not only one, but 2 passport picture.haha.. I guess him afraid losing his luggage and obviously that inside his luggage must be precious things. Folk, be careful on doing so, hehe...see images below is my snap2 inside LRT using HP. hoho

If you can see from the picture where he put picture above his beg

haha...sory, no picture shown..this one example pic..hehe

Demam Piala Dunia

hello guys, guar kat mapley tgk bola ngan mmber..tgk argentina lawan korea...aku cam sokong argentina..tpi my heart still sokong Brazil boleh menang thun nie..hehe..keh2...tgk bola jap...

Wednesday, June 16, 2010

1st day Business trip to Jakarta,

Hello friends, today I would like to right a story regarding to my first day business trip to I need to write in English because at some point I think I need to sharpen my English writing and hopefully writing in English it’s doesn’t feel matter anymore to me… back to the story again, why right now I’m in this plane is because on last week my boss ask me if I interested to join project review? At first time, I was thinking twice because I have another thing to do and also I afraid it will be clashes with my family vacation at kuching where our last day at kuching should be on 6 June 2010.. so…then because my boss are trying to find another replacement and frankly I’m the one who in the office …so I have to accept it and when he said it will be conducted at Jakarta…wowwww…that the opportunity that I should not missed.. heehehhe..
So, my vacation was being short 1 day and I have to rearrange my flight schedule…it’s cost me 90 bucks for that …lousy airasia..hehe…sorry to said la because when you booking last minutes..My advice, better to take MAS because airasia have hidden cost that sometimes we miss…now I know how airasia got high revenue because it saves much money at operation and of course their hidden cost..hehe..Congrate to Datuk Seri Tony, you such brilliant CEO..hehe..

Back to business.. Now I’m flying with Malaysia Airlines and taking Airbus 330..very nice aeroplane and this plane is big ..hehe…surprisingly inside the place their have much more interesting facilities like their have monitor and headphone linking to the monitor..and their have FM..Their provide you with earphone..hehe..wonder what is look like inside business class…hehe…maybe someday I need to take business class n first class…this all about experience..Sometimes when we heard others say nice bout something, we always misinterpreted because our mind cannot imagine or recall what that.. so..When someone say about business class and the service inside their. I can imagine and join the conversation..huhu..even though you read book..Sometimes your mind was limited by your experienced and 50 cent thought
So..Its only few minutes for our flight to landing at Jakarta Airport..I need to stop typing..hohoh…maybe need to continue some more after I arrived at hotel..hehe
After my plane touch down at Jakarta International airport, luckily I found someone that I know him, maybe he came for business trip like I try to ask him weather we could have same taxi. So we first after we arrived at airport, we should undergo same immigration gate. I would say that Indonesia immigration gate is not efficient or very strict because of terrorist attach last year…so we have to wait for 2 hour to pass the immigration gate…what the …..Here...then, because of long queue, we have to separate and have to go to airport alone..,this is my experience at Indonesia…and I travel alone and we have to be careful when arrived at Indonesia airport…when I pass the custom check…there a lot of taxi company approached me to fetch me to hotel..Because I was early booked Grand Hyatt hotel, I prefer company that mention Hyatt hotel as their when I was searching for taxi… I saw Hyatt sign hold by the I thought, transportation is provided for Hyatt guess…here..Thats good..coz I’m afraid I will be cheated by taxi driver…so..I ask the worker…if my name in their list of guest..Then he check and confirm with the hotel lobby…so I wishpered that its my luckily day that the hotel provide me transportation...then he ask me…’pak, mau mobil ape pak’ , he mean that what car did I want for my transportation to hotel…and I’m replied…this have to pay?????he said that…of course..nothing is I asked him again…’berapa rupiah nyer pak’? he replied mau mobil ape pak, c-class, e-class or mau vell-fire alphad…pergh…what the cost for mentioned car, he said that for c-class, the price is 230000 rupiah…for e-class 270000 rupiah and vell-fire 400k rupiah…whatttttttt??/expensive…because before that, I was surfing the internet that the cost for airport to Hyatt hotel is only 100k..its double…and I thought it must be the Mercedes car…then…I said that I need to wait for my friend because this is to much..i need to find the blue bird taxi ( vios) I went outside to find better deal for my transportation, so I was approached by a lot of person or taxi driver and all want to cheat me by offer me 250k, demit expensive for vios, so I was thinking better to take grant Hyatt and then the taxi will be charge back to my hotel bill, then I take Mercedes c-class taxi and its only cost 230k, roughly RM90..hoho..demmm…my impression to Indonesia is negative and I would say that I hate to be cheated and its much be cheaper that I have to continue my journey because at that time is 7pm at I sit in front with the driver and I start a conversation with him because I want to know Indonesia and how their culture look like…so I start to talk…sapa nama bapak..And time flew with our conversation ….then when I arrived at Hyatt Hotel; I would say that this hotel is one of the expensive and luxury hotels because the hotel rate is 130 USD per night and 21percent service charge, quite expensive...hehehe...

So, most of my day I spend at office that located at Menara Batavia. My best experience in Jakarta is to try all limo taxi like Vell Fire and Mercedes E-class..and the rate quite cheap also..hehe..and not to forget that all day meal are provided for breakfast and lunch..for dinner you need to find by yourself. Huhu..But for me, this is the opportunity to try some local food and to have a view of Jakarta city at night..hehe..I

Saturday, June 5, 2010

3rd or last day at kuching

3rd day at kuching

This is my last day at kuching coz initially my flight is on Sunday evening together with my family, but on past Monday my bos ask me if I’m free on Monday 7th , because he need one rep from our department for attending Review project in Jakarta..hehehe…so I say yes…I;m free sangat2..hehehe…so tula sal aku kene balik sabtu malam coz aria had nie g Jakarta…hehe…so aku pon kene la tukar flight…then back to my vacation…today ktorg plan nak g Jong Crocodile farm coz my cousing nie suka sangat ngan buaya..dier nak jmpa ngan bujang senang nyer skull…tengkorak ..hehe..ktorg pon gerak la g sane pagi2..tapi before that we have our breakfast first biase kat kedai Kopi ‘o ..mmg sedap la dier nyer mee jawa…coz mee jawa kat serawak nie mmg special la..lage satu mee kolok…mmg sedap gler la..teringat mase aku kat miri coz time tuh mmg selalu makan mee jawa…hehehe….

so ktorg plan nak g Jong crocodile farm..tmpt nie famous coz ade banyak buaya and antara farm yang tertua kat sini..bile sebut farm mmg la ade jualan daging yang menarik kat sini korg leh tgk camne buaya makan ..coz diorg wat special skit coz hanging kan makanan..then buaya tu kene lompat untuk dapatkan makanan..mmg tnggi gak buaya leh lompat..dekat 2 meter..hehe..kalu naik boat tu senang2 dier leh sambar tangan..hehe..mmg rakus buaya2 kat ktorg xlepak lama coz nak g mum always said that xcomplete g kuching kalu tak g serikin coz nie tmpt shopping..hehe..mmg bes la kalu nak beli barang2 ke...mmg murah..coz ade barang yang xleh jumpa kat downtown ade kat sini..kalu tikar2 tuh kalu kat kuching rega dalam rm100..kat sini leh dapat rm35...cuma korg kene pandai tawar bile dah dekat kol 5ptg..ktorg kene g rumah cousin coz ade makan2 ..dier wat khas tuk kami..mmg bes and sempoi la makanan dier...but saya nak kene kejar flight balik..hehe..xbes tol..hehehe...

skip kat airport..hehe...saya sampai nak wat camne..layankan saya pon terus g la check in and rest..then another story..i'm seat beside orang xpela..diorg nie pandai amek attendtion pramugari..hehe..mmg mggatal la skit.hehehe...xpela..aku layan kan sampai umah rest coz nak prepare for another busy day..but it the best moment for my life coz its full with new energetic things..hehe.

Guess who...haha..plawak raja lawak astro..krog tgk dari belakng teka sape..aku naik satu flight ngan dier..haha..tapi aku cool jela..bukan famous sgt pon mamat nie..hehe..xde orang amek signature pon..hehe
haha..tngkorang bujang senang..panjang dier dekat 19 feet..dekat 3 meter lebih...cuak tak?

nie kat serikin tempat shopping

bersama tengkorak

depan pintu masuk crocodal farm..korg leh beli daging buaya...tapi kat sini ade skali nga pork..lagepon kte xleh makan buaya...kalu mmber2 non muslim ke leh la kot

Friday, June 4, 2010

2nd day at Kuching

2nd day at Kuching

Semalam saya dah cerita tentang cousing saya yang duk kat kuching…so smlm saya basiclly dah spend masa di rumah second day nie saya banyak hope dapat berjalan lebih lage saya and family plan nak sewa kereta…hehe…act saya dah lama plan nak sewa kereta coz ade mmber kate kite leh sewa kete persona rm100 sehari..hehe..dah area2 dekat kuching nie mmg jauh la nak ktorg plan nak g culture village coz dengar kat sane ade show psal etnik dan kaum2 yang utama di saya pon cari la dimudah..coz mase nie time cuti gawai..kebanyakkan kereta sudah disewa…terpaksa la pkai agen nak sewa kereta…so kami sewa kereta waja coz memula dier kat kete wira..then tukar jadi waja lak…cam keeling je xpela..amek kete waja pon bes gak coz selesa skit..coz kereta waja nie cam high lage…hehe….so skip to bab saya amek kereta waja nie…dier pkai empty tank je tuk minyak..hampeh gler la…udh la tak familiar ngan area kuching..hehe..bagi kete xde minyak..nasib baik la aku sempat je nak g stesen minyak…heheh…so ktorg gerak dari hotel dalam kol 10am..dier nyer show start kol mmg kne rush lge coz udahla xtau jalan, but yng kmi tau kne g area gunung santubong…huhu…first kami sesat sampai ke matang because were silap pandang bukit yang serupa santubong..hampeh betol…so me as driver coz my dad didn’t bring his licence coz dier simpan dalam kereta..kene la rush gler nak g sane,..hehe…trademark nak g culture village ialah damai golf resort coz kat sane xde pon signboard nak g ke culture village…for those yang memang xtau nak jalan..mmg ade suttle van disediakan tuk kesana…dalam rm12 seorang and sehala…so pergi balik dalam rm24 my advice kalu korg ade dalam 5 orang..better sewa kereta..coz xjauh besa sangat..thendon forget to bring GPS>…GPSSSS…serius kene ade coz signboard cam xbrape jelas..hehehe..korang leh sesat 2-3 jam…haha…aku pkai google map pon sesat…mybe GPS can resolve that issue..hehe…then kami sampai di culture village kol 11.15am..fuhh…nasib baik la tau brape nak masuk culture village dalam rm60 tuk adult la…so ade tips bagi yang masih ade student card just pay rm15..demmit murah but yang xbes xdapat passport cam orang bayar rm60…hehe..coz setiap umah2 kaum yang ktorg g kene cop la..baru lengkap la tour kami di culture show dier mmg menarik..dengan aksi sumpit menyumpit..hehehe…saya ade try guna sumpit..n mmg bes gler la..coz sumpit nie banyak jenis..ade yang pendek and oanjang..both saya dah try..n paling bes saya sumpit tin sumpit tu boleh tembus tin aluminium…gler bahaya…hahha..baru tau mmg bahaya gler sumpit tuh..hehe..and yang penting senang guna n mmg tepat… saya ade lampirkan gamba2..kalu nak explain setiap rumah mmg pening la..hehehe…so cut sampai kami makan la..coz makan paling bes..saya makan ayam penyet…rm8 sepinggan…mmg sedap la..hehe…saya ade letak gamba la kalu nak tgk..hehehe…then bile dah kol 2pm ktorg pon chow nak g taman Negara bako..hehe…so dari culture village nak g taman bako dalam 2 jam la..hehe..nie tambah sesat2 skit..hehehhe…well..wat do you aspect from first time driver in Kuching…hehehe…

Taman Negara bako…tempat nie mmg cantik..kalu korang perasaan dalam iklan Malaysia truly asia ade adegan diorg kayak kat area batu2 cantik..batu sandstone…kalu xsilap aku ktorg g area situ..mmg bes and happening event kami xmasuk kat HQ taman Negara Bako..and one more dangerous thing..coz kat jetty tu area sungai yang ade buaya besar..coz paling besar penah direkodkan dalam 12 feet lebey la…mybe ad ekes serang orang..hehehe..cuak gak..coz ade sign board ade buaya dalam sungai…mmg bhaya gak naik bot..bukan cuak lemas…tapi cuak buaya..hehehehehe…tapi aku rasa buaya kat area KL lage dasyat..hehehehe….mengalahkan bujang senang..hehe..coz kat KL yang dah kawen pon mengaku bujang..hehehe…so korang cek jela gambar2 yang aku lampirkan..heheh..

Nie nasi ayam penyet..kira antara yang famous kat sini la..try la..korg tgk ayam dier..besaqqq...
hehehe..dedepan pintu masuk culture village...kalu bulan 7 nie ade forest world music festival

This is our next trip to Taman Negara Bako..bess

Tgk signboard tuh...mane xcuak nak naik boat..hehehe..tapi ktorg balsah je..kalu ade buaya ktorg tangkap wat satay..hehe

Hehe..mata pandang mane lak tuh...belakang tuh kira batu sandstone..memg terkenal ngan hakisan dan keindahan hakisan tuh

Tgk batu unik...leh cek dalam iklan Malaysia truly asia

another rock

another view..mals nak eloborate lebih2

Thursday, June 3, 2010

Percutian Di Kuching, Sarawak 1st day

Gamba water front kuching...memang best la...kalu tgk ade ferry tu kalu nak naek rm60 seorang dan ade persembahan kat sane

nie laksa serawak...huhu...sedap gak compare to laksa serawak miri

Malas nak rotate gamba..ko just telengkan kepala..hehehe..on the way g tune hotel

same gak..telengkan kepala..kat airport

Salam, ape kabar semua orang yang membaca blog saya,..hehe...arini saya nak tulis pasal perjalanan saya di Kuching untuk hari yang pertama. Sebenarnya percutian nie xde la plan betul2 coz yang patut g kuching nie only my dad la...coz dier ade tournament golf antara my mum pon just folo skali...the my little sister lak ngah cuti my dad ajak skali untuk pon folo la..hahaa..walaupon lambat diberitahu psal g kuching nie...and lage satu my cousin mak long julie pon ikut gk...nie coz sbab dier xdapat folo g Pulau Pangkor...okeh...dah abes bab intoduction..

so..seminggu sebelom pegi...ktorg plan nak g try duk kat Tune Hotel idea tuh coz tune hotel nie murah la..but..hehe..xbrpe tuk sehari rate tune hotel rm60 la ktorg dapat..kira murah la...heheehhehe...tapi aircond 12 jam je..nak pkai lebey bayar..then yang paling xbest xde TV...nak TV add some more money...ceh..banyak hidden cost..hoho...then ktorg semua plan naik airasia..but saya nyer flight satu hari lambat and satu hari awal balik umah...hhehhe..

so on thusday lepas...saya pon amek cuti n that day saya naik flight ...this was my first time flying to Kuching...xpenah jejak kaki la kat sini coz dengar dari orang je keindahan kuching nie..hehehe...coz penah g miri and bintulu...then bile naek airasia..aku dapat la seat yang tepi tingkap..tapi mase aku nak duduk tgk dah ade orang duduk kat situ..mybe orang serawak..aku kate la 'that my seat' sambil tnjuk seat aku 28F...F tu tepi tingkap...mmg nak tgk pemandangan..ape kes naek kapal terbang tido..rugi duit je..yang mahal tu pemandangan dari atas..coz yang duk nie couple or dah kawen ke..orang kuching la..pastu cam nak kate xleh ke ktorg nak duk situ dengan nada kasar...bajet muka ganas la..hehehe.....tapi tah aku malas nak bertengkar...xpela..aku pon duk tepi kat laluan tu..tapi kecewa amat coz tiket aku beli nie mahal gak rm260 cam haram gak la..tapi tgk mybe diorg nie orang susah kot..aku bgi sedap hati la..ahahah..xslalu naek flight...then leave it jela...hahaaha...but still demmit..heehhehe..then aku pon trus je duk and baca surat khabar the sun...dapat free..bace la...lagepon xdapat tgk pemandangan kuala lumpur..demmit...hahahah...

sesudah sampai di airport..aku still kene on Hp tuk panggilan opis coz banyak benda xsetel kat opis...hehe..xpela..bercuti sampai carry netbook since saya sorg2 je kat kat airport...trus saya pergi ke Malaysia Tourist Center...tanye dier ape yang bes kat sni...then dier bagi checklist what things to do if you in Kuching...hahha..trus je tnye..first thing dier kate muzeum...hmmm...coz kat sini banyak muzeum..then dier kate culture village..coz kat tempat tuh banyak benda menarik....then g kampung air ke ape tah...xpela...nnti aku g tgk sendiri..heheh..then coz my family semuanye dah ade kat tune nak amek teksi la g sane..then tnye how much cost from airport to tune hotel...dier cakap only rm26...still mahal..nasib baik la tune hotel ade sediakan suttle van tuk kesana tiap2 sejam..ade kol 8am, 9am, 10am,..coz saya sampai kol 9 lebey..kene tnggu kol 10am..hohoho..then..tune hotel nie dekat ngan hilton and hotel2 kalu korg dtg sorg2 or berdua...amek la suttle van coz harga dier rm8 sahaja..murah la and selesa..naek van hiace yang besaq tuhh..

okeh..coz dah sampai kuching..kene cakap, kamek pon meneruskan perjalanan...nasib kamek baik coz kamek mbak pasport..coz passport nie penting untuk imigrasen perposes...then bile kamek sampeii hotel... trus kamek madah pada receptionist..sney blik 107...hehe..then dier madah, kitak knak amek lift kat sinun..hehe..sambil menunjuk kan jari ke lift tu..okeh...hehehe...okey da xyah nak poyo ckap serawak..hehe

then sampai bilik hotel trus jmpa mak..coz my dad g training golf...then my mum said that her cousin nak datang bawak jalan2 n makan..kira jalan2 cari makan..mmg bes la...nak describe kecantikan kuching nie mmg subjective kepada orang yang melihatnya..

kami g jalan2 rumah dier,,then g padang golf tempat tournament tuh...g tgk umah2 besar kat petra jaya...makan kat Kopitiam ape tah...saya makan laksa serawak..sedap gak bihun kari..hehe..then ktorg pusing satu kuching n mase petang g makan nasi ayam singapore..mmg murah la makanan kat kuching tak macam miri..coz nasi ayam tuh kedai dier cam chicken rice shop..hidangan dier sedap...serius la...ayam dier lembut..tapi 5 orang makan dalam rm48 je..kira worth la...kalu chicken rice shop da cecak rm 80 kot..hehehe..coz ade taugeh, kailan ,then tauhu telur tuh..die wat hidangan..nnti nak try..heheheh...then balik2 je hotel tgk my dad da ade..dier baru bangun tido lepas penat main golf...then dier trus ajak makan la...tpi ktorg teman la...nak g tmpt makan tuh kene naik la sampan...hehe..nnti saya attach gmba sampan tuh...hehe..makanana dier murah n sedap..okeh la, ,my favorite air kat sarawak nie ialah Teh C special...hehehe..yang ade 3 layer tuh..

Saturday, May 29, 2010

2nd day at pangkor

Cam biase.....bangun pagi2 dipulau mesti cari makan dulu...coz nak g mandi laut pagi2 dengan xmandi nyer trus g pekan Pangkor ntuk mencari makanan..huhu...dapat la makan nasi lemak..huhu..lepas makan nasi lemak trus je siap2 nak mandi air laut...objective arini nak pusing pulau naek moto,..hehe...tapi kene mandi first..then malam nak g pancing ikan kat jetty..hehe..pasal tu kene sewa ktorg mandi start kol 9am...heheh..coz air sejuk lage mase tuh...lagepon orang xramai ..semua masih tido lage lepas je mandi...rehat2 jap...then siap2 mencari moto ntuk disewa..hehe...

then sampai je tempat ktorg sewa moto...jumpa la apek cina tua nie ngan anak buah nyer 'mappler'..coz aku yang nak sewa moto so kene la nego ngan diorg ...'apek, nie moto brape satu'...apek tuh xjawab terus...anak buah dier cakap...RM 30 sehari...hahaha...murah gak coz mase kat jetty mase baru2 sampai ade apek cina offer aku rm50 sehari...demmit apek tuh mak up aku tnye balik...nie kalu gua sewa dua moto xleh dapat rm50 ke...hehe...tetiba je owner apek cina tuh trus cakap...tapi pkai alat bantuan khas la yang letak kat leher tuh...then trus aku teringat series My name is Earl ..ade watak psal org tua pkai alat tuh..haha...xsangka ade gak kat Pulau Pangkor wat bisnes sewa moto..hehehehe...trus je aku amek dua moto..haha...lepas amek moto...trus g pusing pulau..haha..bes gak la...aku naik ngan sedara , abg aku naek ngan abg ipar....haha...syok gak naek moto kat pulau..hehe..coz dah lame xnaek moto..heheheheh...lepas je pusing pulau trus makan keow taw sup and ABC...combination panas dan yin and yang..hahahaha....puas hati..trus balik hotel..tido...haha..sampai kol 4 ptg

Lepas je bangun tdo trus berendam balik..hehe..tapi malam nie plan nak g mancing still on la coz umpan semua da beli...hehe...lepas mandi laut mandi dalam pool lak..hahaha...mandi je keje nie...

So, bile da makan malam semua..trus je ready joran untuk g pancing aku xde la tolong sngt coz da penat main air petang tuh.lepas siap2... g la start moto g jetty...seram gak jetty tuh..hehehe...coz tmpt dier sunyi and jelap..mula2 xjumpa jetty tuh coz gelap..then pusing balik tgk jmpa dua house guard kosong yang sunyi..hehe...kat situ la jetty..haha...ktog still xmatikan enjin moto coz gelap nak nak letak umpan..hehehe...then trus jela mancing..tetiba ade 3 moto sampai..ingt polis je ape..siap ngan lampu lage..haha..bile dekat ngan ktorg first dengar suara...brader...dapat banyak ikan ke...haha..ktorg balas la baru nak start..hehe..selepas sejam memancing ...aku masih xdapat pon ikan.hampeh btol...tapi umpan slalu abes,...kdng2 rasa la ikan tu cuit umpan...ade skali da dapat..tapi tali putus...hampeh tol...abang aku dapat 3 ekor anak ikan...hahaha...aku tgk brader laen ade la dapat anak ikan yu...berbaloi gak mancing..hehehe...tpi ktorg amature,..nak wat camne...lepas umpan abes ktorg blah dari tmpt tuh...balik2 je trus cuci tngan coz da busuk bau umpan ikan..hohoho..then trus tdo..keh,,,sampai sini je update,,,nnti balik aku update lage

Friday, May 28, 2010

1st day at pulau pangkor

Wassup ..hehe..nie baru lepas mandi laut...hehe..trus update blog..nasib baik la aku bwak laptop and maxis leh la update skit2...bes gak mandi laut coz dah 6 bulan xmandi kan..hehe...ktorg bertolak dari rumah pukul 9pagi pergerakan ktorg nie slow skit coz ikut jalan lama and banyak nak berenti..hehe...then bekfast nasi lemak kat hentian guthrie...lepas je berkfast trus ke manjung dulu coz nak solat jumaat dulu...lepas je solat jumaat trus g lumut waterfront and amik ferry dalam kol 3pm..tapi before naik ferry,,, g usha jap tali pancing n mata kail..mane tau nak memancing ke...hehe..abes gak la dekat rm10 beli benda2 camtu...sesudah sampai di hotel..trus makan n mandi...hehe...then tetiba abg ipar ajak lak main banana boat...gua layan jela..haha...dan2 trus diorg soh duk depan skali mase naik banana boat tuh..hahaha..layaaaannn je...hehehehehe...dah lame xnaik banana boat sejak 8 tahun lepas kot..hehe..perghhh...tpi first naek kat PD...kat PD bes giler coz 3 kali jatuh...mmg layan la...nie kat pangkor dapat jatuh skali je dlam malam nie plan nak mancing ikan...wish me luck dapat ikan..tuk kakak sedara aku kalu bace blog nie..haha..sory beb...ktorg have fun kat sini...mybe nex week g kuching lak kite enjoy kat sane...keh22...udah penat menaip gtg (got to go)..hoho..lapar

Thursday, May 27, 2010

Trip to Pulau Pangkor

Arini saya g pulau pangkor ngan excited bangun awal pagi...hehehe..tpi dah banyak kali g pulau pangkor...haha...xpela...

Wednesday, May 19, 2010

Airasia oh Airasia

tajuk arinie lebih kepada percutian yang telah dirancang sebelum aku masuk kerja ngan petronas...time tuh kalu tak silap aku bulan 11, so ade promotion dari airasia free aku trus la cek kat ternet..then trus la book tiket g langkawi untuk bulan 5, atau lebih detail 14hb mei 2010..aku budget mase time tuh leh amek cuti jumaat..tapiiiii...baru ahad lepas baru aku sedar psal tiket tambang murah nie..haha...mybe coz harga dier rm6 je sehala so aku terus terlupa ..hahaha..rugi gak la..hmpehh betol..nie coz byk kerja smpi lupa nak g bercuti ke langkawi..hehe

Sunday, May 2, 2010

Material Corrosion Engineer - Liquid Penetrant Examination

Liquid Penetrant Examination

Methods & Techniques
-detecting discontinuities which open to surface of nonporous metal and other material
-typical discontinuities: cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations & porosity
-either colour contrast or fluorescent penetrant, shall be used with one of the following 3 penetrant process:
Water washable
Solvent removable
-so, six liquid penetrant techniques available

1) Technique for Standard Temperature
1. Liquid penetrant is applied to the surface, allowed to enter discontinuities
2. All excess penetrant is removed and dried
3. Developer is applied:-to absorb any penetrant trapped in discontinuities
-contrasting background to enhance the visibility of
penetrant indications
4. Dyes in penetrants are either colour contrast or fluorescent

2) Technique for Nonstandard Temperature
The examination procedure requires qualification technique of the penetrant materials
1. Fabricating the comparator block
i. shall be made of aluminium, ASTM B 209, Type 2024, 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) thick, and face dimensions of 2 in. x 3 in. (50 mm x 75 mm) center of each face, area of 1 in. (25 mm) diameter shall be marked with 950°F (510°C) temperature-indicating crayon or paint
iii. The marked area shall be heated with a blowtorch/Bunsen burner to a temperature between 950°F (510°C) and 975°F (524°C)
iii.the specimen is immediately quenched in cold water, which produces a network of fine cracks on each face
iv. block is dried by heating to 300°F (149°C) temperature
v. after cooling, block is cut in half. One-half shall be designated block “A”, another one block “B”
vi. for alternative solution, separate blocks 2 in. x 3 in. (50 mm x 75 mm) can be made using the heating and quenching as described above, where both block shall be designated “A” and “B”

2. Comparator Application
i.For temperature less than 40°F (5°C),
-to qualify the examination procedure for temperature less than 40°F (5°C), the proposed procedure shall be applied to block “B” after the block has been cooled and held at the proposed examination temperature
-a standard procedure shall be applied to block “A” in the 40°F to 125°F (5°C to 52°C) temperature range
-indication of cracks shall be compared between blocks “A” and “B”
-if indications obtained under block “B” are essentially same as block “A”, the proposed procedure shall be qualified for use

ii. For temperature greater than 125°F (52°C),
-the qualifying procedure is same as procedure for the temperature less than 40°F (5°C)
-for this qualification procedure, the upper and lower temperature limits shall be established
-example: to qualify a procedure for the temperature range 126°F (52°C) to 200°F (93°C), the capability of penetrant to reveal indications shall be demonstrated at both temperatures
iii. Alternate techniques for Colour Contrast Penetrants,
-permissible to use a single comparator block for standard and non-standard temperatures, and make comparison by photography
-firstly, process of non-standard temperature is being done. Photograph is taken.
-block shall be cleaned
-then, process of standard temperature is being done. Photograph is taken.
-comparison between both photographs

-light meters shall be calibrated at least once a year or whenever the meter has been repaired
-if not been used for one year or more, should calibrated again

For temperature of the penetrant and surface of the part is between 40°F (5°C) and 125°F (52°C):
Standard Temperature Technique shall be used as specified

For temperature of the penetrant and surface of the part is below 40°F (5°C) or above 125°F (52°C):
Nonstandard Temperature Technique shall be used as specified

-based on requirements listed in Table T-621, ASME V 2007
-any change of requirements of essential variable in Table T-621, shall require requalification of the written procedure by demonstration.
-any change of requirements of nonessential variable does not require any requalification

-certification of contaminant content shall be obtained for all liquid penetrant materials used on nickel base alloys, austenitic or duplex stainless steels and titanium
-the certification shall include the penetrant manufacturers’ batch numbers and the test results

-by grinding, machining
-the surface to be examined and adjacent areas within at least 1 in. (25 mm) shall be dry and free of all dirt, grease, lint, scale, welding flux etc.
-typical cleaning agents are detergents, organic solvers, descaling solutions etc.
-degreasing and ultrasonic cleaning methods
-cleaning solvents shall have certification of contaminant as described before

Penetrant material
-descriptions of liquid penetrant classification and material types are provided in ASTM E 165-02: Standard Test Method for Liquid Penetrant Examination
-Fluorescent penetrant shall not follow a colour contrast penetrant examination.
-intermixing of penetrant materials from different families or manufacturers is not permitted
-retest with water washable penetrants may cause loss of marginal indications due to contamination

-may be applied by dipping, brushing, or spraying
-if by spraying, use compressed-air type apparatus. Filter shall be placed on upstream side near the air inlet, to preclude any contamination

Penetration (Dwell) Time
-the minimum penetration shall be as required in Table T-672, ASME V 2007

Types of penetrants:
i. Water-Washable Penetrants
-excess penetrant shall be removed by water spray
-water pressure shall not exceed 50 psi (350 kPa)
-water temperature shall not exceed 110°F (43°C)
-after removed with water spray, surfaces shall be dried by blotting with clean materials or using circulating air, where the surface temperature should not raised above 125°F (52°C)

ii. Post-emulsification Penetrants
Lipophilic Emulsification
-excess penetrant shall be emulsified by immersing the part with emulsifier
-emulsification time is depending on the type of emulsifier and surface condition or maybe determined experimentally
-after emulsification, mixture shall be removed by rinsing with water. Manufacturer shall recommend the water temperature and pressure

Hydrophilic Emulsification
-the parts shall be prerinsed with water spray using the same process as for water-washable penetrants
-prerinsing time shall not exceed 1 minute
-after prerinsing, excess penetrant shall be emulsified by immersing/spraying with hydrophilic emulsifier
-manufacturer shall recommend the bath concentration
-after emulsification, mixture shall be removed by rinsing with water. Manufacturer shall recommend the water temperature and pressure

For both lipophilic & hydrophilic emulsification
-after rinsing with water, surfaces shall be dried by blotting with clean materials or using circulating air, where the surface temperature should not raised above 125°F (52°C)

iii. Solvent Removable Penetrants
-excess penetrant shall be removed by wiping with cloth/absorbent paper. Repeat until most traces shall be removed
-remaining traces is removed by lightly wiping the surface with cloth/absorbent paper moistened with solvent
-care should be taken to avoid the use of excess solvent
-flushing the surface with solvent, after application of penetrant and before developing is prohibited
-after wiping the surface, it shall be dried by normal evaporation, blotting, wiping or forced air.

-shall be applied as soon as possible after penetrant removal
-with colour contrast penetrants, only wet developer is used
-with fluorescent penetrants, a wet/dry developer is used

Dry Developer Application
-applied by soft brush, hand powder bulb, powder gun (dusted evenly on the examined surface)

Wet Developer Application
-before applying suspension type wet developer to the surface, developer must be agitated to ensure adequate dispersion

i. Aqueous Developer Application
-may be applied to either wet or dry surface
-shall be obtained by dipping, brushing or spraying. Provided a thin coating is obtained over entire surface
-drying time might be reduced using warm air, provided the surface temperature is not raised above 125°F (52°C)
-blotting not permitted

ii. Nonaqueous Developer Application
-applied only to a dry surface, by spraying or brushing
-drying shall be normal evaporation

Developing time
-shall be begins immediately after application of dry developer or when the wet developer coating is dry
-based on Table T-672, ASME V 2007


-final interpretation shall be made within 10 to 60 min after developing time
-if bleed-out does not alter the examination results, longer period are permitted
-examination shall be performed in increments if the surface is large enough
-if penetrant diffuses excessively into developer, observation of the formation of indications during application of developer may be closed

a) Colour Contrast Penetrants
-developer forms a uniform white coating
-surface discontinuities indicated by bleed-out of penetrant, normally deep red colour that stains the developer
-excessive cleaning indicated by pink colour
-inadequate cleaning may produce excessive background, making interpretation difficult
-minimum light intensity of 100 fc (1000 1x) is required during surface examination

b) Fluorescent Penetrants
-examination is performed using ultraviolet light (black light) in darkened area
-examiners shall be in darkened area for at least 5 min before performing examination, to enable their eye to adapt darkened area. Glasses or lens worn shall not be photosensitive
-black light shall achieve minimum of 1000 µW/cm2 on the surface part
-reflector and filters should be checked. Broken filters shall be replaced
-black light intensity shall be checked with light meter

c) Interpretation based on application

i. Welded Pipeline
-any indication with maximum dimension of 1/16 in. (2 mm) or less may be classified as nonrelevant
-any unknown indication status shall be regarded as relevant until re-examined to determine whether the imperfections really exist
-surface may be ground or conditioned before re-examination
-after indication is determined to be nonrelevant, it doesn’t need to be re-examined
-relevant indications are those caused by imperfections
-linear indication is where the length is more than three times the width
-rounded indication is where the length is three times the width or less

Acceptance Standards
-relevant indication shall be considered defects if any of the following conditions occur.

For linear indication:
1) evaluated as crater or star cracks and exceed 5/32 in. (4 mm) in length
2) evaluated as cracks other than star or crater cracks
3) evaluated as incomplete fusion and exceed 1 in. (25 mm) in total length in continuous 12 in. (300 mm) length of weld or 8% of length of weld length

For rounded indication (individual pore):
1) Size of individual pore exceeds 1/8 in. (3 mm)
2) Size of individual pore exceeds 25 % of thinner of nominal wall thicknesses joined
3) Distribution of scattered porosity exceeds the concentration permitted in Fig. 19 or Fig. 20, in API 1104.

For rounded indication (cluster pore):
1) Diameter of cluster exceeds ½ in. (13 mm)
2) Aggregate length of cluster in any continuous 12 in. (300 mm) of weld length exceeds ½ in. (13 mm)

Material Corrosion Engineering HIC Testing


Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC) occurs when carbon steel is exposed to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). It’s a direct result of electrochemical corrosion reactions between the sour service and wet H2S environment. The risk of this should be considered when hydrogen sulfide partial pressure becomes greater than 3.5mbar in standard.

Carbon steel pressure vessels should not be affected by HIC damage where H2S levels are lower than 3.5mbar in a normal service life cycle. HIC is common in wet a H2S environment which is often known as sour service. The cracking over a prolonged period of time without inspection will reach a critical point and the steel component i.e. pressure vessel that could easily fail. Simply put hydrogen induced cracking damage increases as the level of hydrogen sulfide increases. Examples of hydrogen induced damage are:

1) Formation of internal cracks, blisters or voids in steels.
2) embrittlement (i.e. loss of ductility).
3) High temperature hydrogen attack (i.e. surface decarburation and chemical reaction with hydrogen).

Prevention or Remedial Action
1. internal cracking or blistering
o Use of steel with low levels of impurities (i.e. sulfur and phosphorus).
o Modifying environment to reduce hydrogen charging.
o Use of surface coatings and effective inhibitors.

2. hydrogen embrittlement
o Use of lower strength (hardness) or high resistance alloys.
o Selection of materials of construction and plating systems.
o Heat treatment to remove absorbed hydrogen.

3. high temperature hydrogen attack
o Selection of material (for steels, use of low and high alloy Cr-Mo steels; selected Cu alloys; non-ferrous alloys).
o Limit temperature and partial pressure H2.

This testing is establish to evaluate the resistance of pipeline and the pressure vessel plate steels to HIC caused by hydrogen absorption from aqueous sulfide corrosion.
As a corrosion engineer, need to observe and witness all the steps and the equipments to perform the testing are complied as per written in the approved procedure.

Materials and Testing Apparatus
1) Reagent – Solution A which is N2 gas for purging, H2S gas, NaCl, CH3COOH and distilled or demonized water.

2) Testing apparatus – As shown in figure 3.1 & 3.2

3) Specimen – a) Size - Cut into 100mm long by 20mm wide.
b) Thickness - 1) Max at 30mm, for greater than 30mm, a max of 1mm
shall be removed from each of surface.
2) For small diameter, thin wall ERW and seamless, the
thickness must be 80% of full wall thickness of that
c) Number – Three (3) specimens from each pipe.
d) Location – 1) For welded, taken from the weld, 90 deg from the weld, 180 deg from the weld.
2) For seamless, taken 120 deg apart around the circ.
e) Orientation – 1) Seamless: Parallel to longitudinal axis of the pipe.
2) Welded: Parent metal of longitudinally welded pipe.
3) Spiral welded: Parallel to the weld for the parent metal
4) Welded: Perpendicular to the weld for weld area.
5) ERW pipe: Parallel to the weld of the weld area.
4) Sample preparation – test specimen shall be ground either wet or dry and finished with 320 grit paper.
5) Sample Cleaning – test specimen shall be degreased with degreasing solution and rinsed with acetone.

1. Test specimen is set in the test vessel with the wide faces vertically in place.
2. All the specimens are separated by glass or non metallic rods with min 6mm.
3. The ratio test solution: total surface = 3 ml: 1 cm2
4. Solution A shall be prepared in a separate sealed vessel and purged with N2 for at least 1 hour at rate of 100 ml per min per liter. The pH for the solution shall be at 2.7.
5. The N2 purge and the H2S gas shall be introduced near the bottom of the test vessel.
6. Purging of N2 if needed for at least 1 hour with rate 100 ml per min per liter, after that H2S gas shall be bubble through the test solution 200 ml per min per liter for the first 60mins. Thereafter, a positive pressure of H2S shall be maintained.
7. The concentration of H2S in the solution should be at 2,300ppm which measure by titration.
8. pH at start for solution A after H2S saturation shall not exceed 3.3. If Solution B, pH shall be in the range of 4.8 to 5.4.
9. pH at the end of the test for solution A shall not exceed 4.0 while solution B, the pH should be in the range of 4.8 to 5.4.
10. The test duration is 96 hours which begin immediately after the initial 60mins H2S introduction period.
11. The temperature during the test shall be maintained at 25ºC

1. After testing, the specimen shall be cut into pieces as shown in the figure 3.3 and 3.4.

2. Each section shall be polished metallographically and etched to distinguish between crack and other defects such as inclusion, lamination and scratches. Prior to polish the samples, all faces shall be examined under the scope. After polishing, crack shall be visible if present. For any crack, it will be measured for the length and thickness as shown in figure below

The testing has successfully been done. All of the procedures were complied and conform accordingly. The samples were taken out at 1230 hour from the test vessel after 96 hours by the personnel with fully PPE to avoid the noxious of H2S gas. All the samples were washed to remove the chemical on the samples. Next, the lab personnel punch the numbers for identification prior to cutting process. After cut into pieces, the faces were ground using abrasive paper. After obtain the clear shiny surface, all the samples were examine under a scope using low magnification to identify any crack or other defects. Once finished, the samples were then polished using the alumina solution and polishing cloth until obtain the mirror like surface. The samples were once again examine under a scope before etch using 2% nitrate acid to reveal the microstructure of the surfaces. Each of the samples was examine at 100x magnification and the micrographs of the samples were saved as data for report purposes.
As per my observation and random check, there is only one visible crack was found on the samples but it’s within the allowable range. The testing was adjourned at 1700 hour.

From the HIC witness test, I’ve learn the procedure of HIC (Hydrogen Induced Cracking) and the measurement and calculation of crack. Procedure of HIC testing is based on NACE TM 0284 & NACE TM 0177. For the acceptance criteria, this testing was followed (Linepipe for oil and gas for sour service) standard. The acceptance criteria for CLR is 15% max, CSR 1.5% max and CTR 5% max.

Standard Test Methods
• NACE TM0177 - laboratory testing of metals for resistance to sulfide stress cracking in H2S environments.
• NACE TM0284 - evaluation of pipeline and plate steels for resistance to stepwise cracking.
• ASTM G129 - slow strain rate test for determination of environmentally assisted cracking.
• ASTM G142 - tension tests in hydrogen environments.
• ASTM G146 - hydrogen induced disbonding of stainless clad steel plate in refinery hydrogen service.
• ASTM F-326 - method for electronic hydrogen embrittlement test for cadmium electroplating processes.
• ASTM F-519 - method for mechanical hydrogen embrittlement testing of plating processes and aircraft maintenance chemicals.
• ASTM A-143 - practice of safeguarding against embrittlement of hot dip galvanized structural steel products and detecting embrittlement.
• ASTM B-577 - hydrogen embrittlement of deoxidized and oxygen free copper.
Evaluation for Hydrogen Induced Damage
Since hydrogen can induce many types of damage in engineering materials, it’s impossible to look to only one test method for all problems.
• Slow strain rate test methods are good to obtain general information on the inherent susceptibility to hydrogen embrittlement is a short period of time. However, the results will generally be very conservative.
• For higher strength materials, the use of constant load tests for determination of an apparent threshold stress for cracking is a generally accepted technique.
• Hydrogen induced cracking and blistering of low strength steels can be tested using non-stressed coupons exposed to the test environment. However, in some cases, the addition of an externally applied or residual tensile stress can cause materials to crack that do not show cracking in the non-stressed condition. Also, constant load specimens may not fail under tensile stress even though they may have extensive internal cracking or blistering.
High temperature hydrogen damage and disbonding must be evaluated for the specific conditions of time and temperature for the intended use. However, it can in many cases, be accelerated with the combination of higher temperature and/or hydrogen pressure.

Material Corrosion Engineering - Failure Analysis/ Welding Technology

Failure Analysis

Non-destructive Test (NDT)

Visual inspection

Direct visual inspection

A visual examination of operational plant can be used to check for obvious problem areas, such as leaks, excess vibration or misalignment. On exposed metal surfaces it can also be used to check for corrosion. Specific guidance on the inspection of pressure vessels for corrosion and other flaws is given in API Recommended Practice 572, and on the inspection of piping, valves and fittings associated with pressure vessels in API Recommended Practice 574.
Plant coated with internal or external coverings, such as insulation, refractory protective linings and corrosion resistant linings, may be inspected visually if access permits. In such cases, a visual examination can be used to check that the protective layer has not separated and that it is free of breaks, holes and blisters.
In some extreme cases, a visual examination may also be able to detect cracking, particularly if the cracking is surface-breaking and extensive. There are various aids to visual inspection. As well as magnifying glasses, there are devices for measuring pit depths, weld leg length and surface profiles.
Visual examination is applicable to most surfaces, but is most effective where the surfaces have been cleaned prior to examination, i.e. any scale, loose paint has been removed by wire brushing etc. However, care must be taken to avoid peeling.
Remote visual inspection

An enhanced visual inspection using boroscopes or endoscopes can be used to check the internal surfaces of pipes or tubes for corrosion and/or erosion damage. On pipe containing a protective inner lining, boroscopes may be used to check that the lining is free of breaks, holes and blisters. Also, if the inner surface of the pipe or tube is sufficiently clean, boroscopes may be able to detect surface-breaking cracks, provided that they are sufficiently large.
Where access is restricted, and it is not possible to examine the subject area with the naked eye, boroscopes or endoscopes may be used. In simple terms, these are telescopes, which can be inserted into pipes, tubing or access holes in machinery. Most modern endoscopes use optical fibers to illuminate the subject area and to relay the image back to a closed-circuit television camera. Optical fibers enable images to be retrieved over several meters and permit access to relatively complex geometries. The inspection can also be recorded on video. Equipment costs range from a few hundreds of pounds for a manually operated endoscope to several thousand for a sophisticated video recording system.
Boroscopes and endoscopes are normally used to examine areas that are inaccessible to the naked eye. Perhaps, their most common application area is the examination of small diameter tube or pipe.

Radioactive testing

RT is a method of inspecting materials for hidden flaws by using the ability of short wavelength electromagnetic radiation, which are high energy photons to penetrate various materials. Since the amount of radiation emerging from the opposite side of the material can be detected and measured, variations in this amount or intensity of radiation are used to determine thickness or composition of material. In RT, we use ASME V and PTS 20.112 to determine the RT quality and its area of concern.

Ultrasonic Testing (UT)

Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation, dimensional measurements, material characterization, and more. To illustrate the general inspection principle, a typical pulse/echo inspection configuration as illustrated below will be used.
A typical UT inspection system consists of several functional units, such as the pulser/receiver, transducer, and display devices. A pulser/receiver is an electronic device that can produce high voltage electrical pulses. Driven by the pulser, the transducer generates high frequency ultrasonic energy. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path, part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface. The reflected wave signal is transformed into an electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen. In the applet below, the reflected signal strength is displayed versus the time from signal generation to when an echo was received. Signal travel time can be directly related to the distance that the signal traveled. From the signal, information about the reflector location, size, orientation and other features can sometimes be gained.

Ultrasonic Inspection is a very useful and versatile NDT method. Some of the advantages of ultrasonic inspection that are often cited include:
• It is sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities.
• The depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other NDT methods.
• Only single-sided access is needed when the pulse-echo technique is used.
• It is highly accurate in determining reflector position and estimating size and shape.
• Minimal part preparation is required.
• Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results.
• Detailed images can be produced with automated systems.
• It has other uses, such as thickness measurement, in addition to flaw detection.
As with all NDT methods, ultrasonic inspection also has its limitations, which include:
• Surface must be accessible to transmit ultrasound.
• Skill and training is more extensive than with some other methods.
• It normally requires a coupling medium to promote the transfer of sound energy into the test specimen.
• Materials that are rough, irregular in shape, very small, exceptionally thin or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect.
• Cast iron and other coarse grained materials are difficult to inspect due to low sound transmission and high signal noise.
• Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam may go undetected.
• Reference standards are required for both equipment calibration and the characterization of flaws.
The above introduction provides a simplified introduction to the NDT method of ultrasonic testing. However, to effectively perform an inspection using ultrasonic’s, much more about the method needs to be known. The following pages present information on the science involved in ultrasonic inspection, the equipment that is commonly used, some of the measurement techniques used, as well as other information.

1. High penetrating power, which allows the detection of flaws deep in the part.
2. High sensitivity, permitting the detection of extremely small flaws.
3. Only one surface need be accessible.
4. Greater accuracy than other nondestructive methods in determining the depth of internal flaws and the thickness of parts with parallel surfaces.
5. Some capability of estimating the size, orientation, shape and nature of defects.
6. Nonhazardous to operations or to nearby personnel and has no effect on equipment and materials in the vicinity.
7. Capable of portable or highly automated operation.

1. Manual operation requires careful attention by experienced technicians
2. Extensive technical knowledge is required for the development of inspection procedures.
3. Parts that is rough, irregular in shape, very small or thin, or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect.
4. Surface must be prepared by cleaning and removing loose scale, paint, etc, although paint that is properly bonded to a surface usually need not be removed.
5. Couplants are needed to provide effective transfer of ultrasonic wave energy between transducers and parts being inspected unless a non-contact technique is used. Non-contact techniques include Laser and Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMAT).
6. Inspected items must be water resistant, when using water based couplants that do not contain rust inhibitors.

Specimen Preparation

Band Saw

A band saw is used basically in metalworking industry which is particularly useful for cutting both irregular or curved shapes and straight cut work pieces. This machine contains a power tool which utilizes a blade consisting of a continuous band of metal with teeth along one edge. The band is riding on two wheels rotating in the same plane. The saw is powered by electrical motor and produces uniform cutting action as a result of an evenly distributed tooth load. The radius of a curve that can be cut on a particular saw is determined by the width of the band and its lateral flexibility. Figure 2.6 shows the band saw blades.

Horizontal band saws may employ a gravity-fed blade or the cutting rate may be controlled by a hydraulic cylinder bleeding through an adjustable valve. Before the operations start, the operator raises the saw by hand and the material is clamped in place. When the saw is turned on, the blade slowly descending into the material, cutting it as the band blade moves. When the cutting process is complete, a switch is tripped and the saw automatically turns off. Sometimes, the brushwheels are used to remove chips away from the workpieces.
For EU-250AR, Hydraulic Vise Fully Automatic Band Saws has the medium size of 10” professional band saws. The Way Train product has a wide range of applications including processing large steel H beams and heavy steel mold forms. The blade size is 27mm x 0.9mm x 3300mm while the blade speed range is between 20mpm until 80mpm which is controlled by 2.0 hp motor. The overall band saw is controlled by hydraulic motor with 0.5 hp and the coolant motor is 0.2 hp. Figure 2.7 shows the horizontal band saw.

Horizontal band saw

Sample Preparation

The technique of sample preparation for metallurgical lab practices is an essential procedure. These samples will be examined and photomicrographs are obtained by using optical microscopes equipped with digital cameras. There are four steps in sample preparation technique which are mounting, grinding, polishing and etching.
Small specimens generally require mounting so that the specimen is supported in a stable medium for grinding and polishing. The time, Th (curing temperature), and Tc (cooling temperature) are set on the mounting machine according to the required application. Then, the sample is loaded in the machine. The pressure is set according to the required application, and the process is started.
Grinding is a finishing process used to improve surface finish, abrade hard materials, and tighten the tolerance on flat and cylindrical surfaces by removing a small amount of material.
In grinding, an abrasive material rubs against the metal part and removes tiny pieces of material. The abrasive material is typically on the surface of a wheel or belt and abrades material in a way similar to sanding. On a microscopic scale, the chip formation in grinding is the same as that found in other machining processes. The abrasive action of grinding generates excessive heat so that flooding of the cutting area with fluid is necessary. Grinding can produce flatness tolerances of less than ±0.0025 mm on steel surface if the surface is adequately supported. Other than that, grinding is able to remove excessive material. Figure 2.8 shows the grinding process chart which contains of several types of grit grinding starting from the least abrade surface until most abrade surface. Figure 2.9 shows the example of grit grinding wheel.


The term mechanical polishing is frequently used to describe the various final polishing procedures involving the use of cloth-covered laps and suitable polishing abrasives. The laps have either a rotating or a vibrating motion, and the specimen are held by hand, held mechanically, or merely confined within the polishing area.

Polishing is done in a relatively dust-free area, preferably removed from the area for sectioning, mounting and rough grinding. Any contamination of a polishing lap by abrasive particles carried over from a preceding operation or by dust, dirt or other foreign matter in the air cannot be tolerated. Carryover as a result of improper cleaning between final polishing steps is another prime source of contamination. It is just as important for the operator to wash his hand meticulously as is for him to remove all traces of polishing abrasive from the specimen before proceeding to the next polishing operation. The specimen can be cleaned ultrasonically or by careful washing under running water and swabbing with cotton. In automatic equipment in which holding fixtures for the specimens are also transferred through successive polishing steps, proper cleaning of the assembly can be accomplished only by using an ultrasonic cleaner.

If a polishing lap becomes contaminated, it is virtually impossible to remove all of the contaminant by washing the polishing cloth. Instead, the operator should replace the cloth and use fresh polishing solution. Cleanness cannot be overemphasized. It takes only one particle of grit on a final polishing lap to ruin all prior preparation.


Etching of the sample is performed to reveal to grain structure and other features on the sample. Prior to etching, the grain structure and other features are unobservable. In the etching stage, the polished sample is exposed to the corrosive chemical. The chemical will attack the surface especially on the weaker bonded atoms. Any atoms at the grain boundary are removed at higher rate. As a result, the grain boundary becomes deeper and looks darker than the grain. The impurities react differently on the chemical and distinguished themselves away. There several procedures regarding the etching technique. The gloves are worn while using these caustic etchants. The time is set and the surface is covered with etchant. After several moments, the etchant is rinsed off with distilled water when proper etching time is reached. It is advisable not to dry the sample by wiping, because this will scratch the polished sample.

Brinell Hardness Test

Hardness tests are performed more frequently than any other mechanical test for several reasons. No special specimen needs to be prepared, and the testing apparatus is relatively inexpensive. The test is non-destructive where the specimen is neither fractured nor excessively deformed. A small indentation is the only deformation. Other mechanical properties may be obtained from the hardness data, such as tensile strength.

In Brinell test, a hard, spherical indenter is forced into the surface of the metal to be tested. The diameter of the indenter is 10.00 mm (0.394 inn.). Standard loads range between 500 kg until 3000 kg in 500-kg increments. Harder materials require greater applied loads. During a test, the load is maintained constant between 10 s and 30 s. The Brinell hardness number, HB is a function of both the magnitude of the load and the diameter of resulting indentation. This diameter is measured using a special low-power microscope. Figure 2.10 shows the Brinell Test equipment.

Stereo Microscope
The stereo or dissecting microscope uses two separate optical paths with two objectives and two eyepieces to provide slightly different viewing angles to the left and right eyes. In this way it produces a 3-D visualization of the sample being examined. The function of this type of microscope is to study the surfaces of solid specimens or to carry out close work such as sorting, dissection, microsurgery, watch-making, small circuit board manufacture or inspection. The illumination in a stereo microscope most often uses episcopic (reflected) illumination rather than diascopic (transmitted) illumination, that is, light reflected from the surface of an object rather than light transmitted through an object. Use of reflected light from the object allows examination of specimens that would be too thick. However, stereo microscopes are also capable of transmitted light illumination as well, typically by having a bulb or mirror beneath a transparent stage underneath the object
The Stemi SV 11 is used primarily for searching and sorting embryos. The heated stage can be added as an option. Standard configuration for Stemi SV 11 includes SV 11 Apo stereo microscope body, fine focusing mount, binocular 35 degree tube, 10x focusing eyepieces, folding eyecups, type N Stand (32mm column) and dust cover. The microscope has maximum magnification of 60 times. Figure XX shows the Stemi SV 11 Stereo Microscope.

Stemi SV 11 Stereo Microscope

Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)
The SEM is an instrument that produces a large magnified image by using electrons instead of light to produce an image. Philips XL40 SEM is used to detect fracture surface on the material. The magnification of the microscope can reach until 100,000 times. Philips XL40 SEM is assisted by EDX software that can detect any source of corrode mechanisms. For example, any foreign elements can be detected in steel.

A beam of electrons is produced at the top of the microscope by an electron gun. The electron beam follows a vertical path through the microscope, which is held within a vacuum. The beam travels through electromagnetic fields and lenses, which focus the beam down toward the sample. Once the beam hits the sample, electrons and X-rays are ejected from the sample. Detectors collect these X-rays, backscattered electrons, and secondary electrons and convert them into a signal that is sent to a screen similar to a television screen. This produces the final image.
Because the SEM utilizes vacuum conditions and uses electrons to form an image, special preparations must be done to the sample. All water must be removed from the samples because the water would vaporize in the vacuum. All metals are conductive and require no preparation before being used. All non-metals need to be made conductive by covering the sample with a thin layer of conductive material. This is done by using a device called a ‘sputter coater’.
The sputter coater uses an electric field and argon gas. The sample is placed in a small chamber that is at a vacuum. Argon gas and an electric field cause an electron to be removed from the argon, making the atoms positively charged. The argon ions then become attracted to a negatively charged gold foil. The argon ions knock gold atoms from the surface of the gold foil. These gold atoms fall and settle onto the surface of the sample producing a thin gold coating. If there is no sputter coater being used on non-metal samples, the produced image will be discharged.

3.0 Welding
3.1 Welding Procedures

Table 3.1: Types of welding procedure
Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Flux Cored Arc Welding (FCAW)
Other name Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding Metal Inert Gas (MIG) welding “Dual Shield” welding
Mechanism Uses an electric arc between a tungsten electrode (non-consumable) and the workpiece to produce the weld
Uses the heat of an electric arc between a continuous filler metal electrode and the workpiece to produce the weld
Same as GMAW
Shielding inert gas/ inert gas mixture i.e. Argon externally supplied gas or gas mixture usually CO2 Flux-cored electrode and an extra shielding gas
Power Supplies Has both DC and AC current DC DC
Applicability Commonly to weld thin sections of stainless steel and non-ferrous metals Mainly for welding carbon and low-alloy steels, stainless steels, heat-resisting alloys, aluminum alloys etc. Mainly for welding carbon and low-alloy steel
Advantages The smaller the thickness is better: usually <2”, easier for operator to control
Often permits economies in the total weld volume required because it is semi-automatic
• In closed environment can produce better and more consistent mechanical properties of welds with fewer defects as compared to either SMAW or GMAW.
• The slag created by the flux is also easy to remove.

Weakness • Relatively difficult to master
• Need proper control of welding current
• More time consuming than other techniques Porosity due to gas entrapped or generated in the weld, often caused by improper gas shielding Not suitable in windy environments as the loss of shielding gas from air will produce visible porosity on surface of the weld


Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW) is defined as "an arc welding process in which coalescence of metals is produced by heat from an electric arc that is maintained between the tip of a flux covered electrode and the surface of the base metal in the joint being welded." This process forms the gas and slag to shield the arc and molten weld pool. The slag must be chipped off the weld bead after welding. The flux also provides a method of adding scavengers, deoxidizers, and alloying elements to the weld metal. This process is commonly referred to as stick welding.

Equipment required to perform the SMAW welding process includes a constant current power source that supplies the power to the consumable rod electrode.
The SMAW welding process typically is capable of producing three types of welded joints. They are:
 Butt joint
 Lap joint,
 T-joint, and
 Fillet weld.

Advantages Limitations /Disadvantages
• Versatility - readily applied to a variety of applications and a wide choice of electrodes
• Relative simplicity and portability of equipment
• Low cost
• Adaptable to confined spaces and remote locations
• Suitable for out-of-position welding • Not as productive as continuous wire processes
• Likely to be more costly to deposit a given quantity of metal
• Frequent stop/starts to change electrode
• Relatively high metal wastage (electrode stubs)
• Current limits are lower than for continuous or automatic processes (reduces deposition rate)

Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

Submerged Arc Welding is defined as "a process which produces coalescence of metals by heating them with a buried arc between a bare electrode and the work. The arc and molten metal are "submerged" in a blanket of granular fusible flux on the work." This process is often referred to as Sub-Arc.

This process most commonly uses a continuous, consumed, bare solid wire electrode that is shielded by the flux. The flux acts to stabilize the arc during welding, shielding the molten pool from the atmosphere. Additionally the flux covers and protects the weld during cooling and can affect weld composition and properties. The weld metal properties will vary based on the flux and consumable wire selection.

SAW process

Advantages Limitations /Disadvantages
• Very high welding rate-High deposition rate
• The process is suitable for automation-High operating factors
• High quality welds structure.
• Deep weld penetration
• Good process design and control
• Minimal welding fume or arc light is emitted.
• Suitable for both indoor and outdoor
• Welds produce are sound, uniform, ductile, corrosion resistant and have good impact value. • Weld may contain slag inclusions
• Limited applications of the process - mostly for welding horizontally located plates.
• Limited to ferrous (steel or stainless steel) and some nickel based alloys.
• Limited to the 1F, 1G, and 2F positions.
• Requires inter-pass and post weld removal.
• Normally limited to long straight seams or rotated pies vessels.

SAW machine

Figure 3.4: SAW Torch
3.4 Welding Positions
Welding Positions for Groove welds:
Welding Position Test Position ISO and EN
Flat 1G PA
Horizontal 2G PC
Vertical Upwards Progression 3G PF
Vertical Downwards Progression 3G PG
Overhead 4G PE
Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5G PF
Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Upwards 6G HL045
Pipe Fixed @ 45 degrees Downwards 6G JL045

Welding Positions for Fillet welds:
Welding Position Test Position ISO and EN
Flat (Weld flat joint at 45 degrees) 1F PA
Horizontal 2F PB
Horizontal Rotated 2FR PB
Vertical Upwards Progression 3F PF
Vertical Downwards Progression 3F PG
Overhead 4F PD
Pipe Fixed Horizontal 5F PF

Welding positions for Plate and Pipes


Charpy Impact Test
Charpy impact test is used to measure the impact energy, sometimes also called notch toughness. The specimen is in the shape of a bar of square cross section, into which a V-notch is machined. The apparatus for making V-notch is shown in the figure below. The load is applied as an impact blow from weight pendulum hammer that is released from a cocked position at a fixed height h. Upon release, a knife edge mounted on the pendulum strikes and fractures the specimen at the notch, which acts as a point of stress concentration for this high-velocity impact blow. The pendulum continues its swing, rising to a maximum height h’, which is lower than h. The energy absorption, computed from the difference between h and h’. This test determines the fracture properties of a material.

The notch in the sample affects the results of the impact test, thus it is necessary for the notch to be of a regular dimensions and geometry. The size of the sample can also affect results, since the dimensions determine whether or not the material is in plane strain. This difference can greatly affect conclusions made.
The quantitative result of the impact test—the energy needed to fracture a material—can be used to measure the toughness of the material and the yield strength. Also, the strain rate may be studied and analyzed for its effect on fracture.
The qualitative results of the impact test can be used to determine the ductility of a material. If the material breaks on a flat plane, the fracture was brittle, and if the material breaks with jagged edges or shear lips, then the fracture was ductile. Usually a material does not break in just one way or the other, and thus comparing the jagged to flat surface areas of the fracture will give an estimate of the percentage of ductile and brittle fracture.
According to ASTM A370, the standard specimen size for Charpy impact testing is 10mm×10mm×55mm. Subsize specimen sizes are: 10mm×7.5mm×55mm, 10mm×6.7mm×55mm, 10mm×5mm×55mm, 10mm×3.3mm×55mm, 10mm×2.5mm×55mm. Details of specimens as per ASTM A370 (Standard Test Method and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of Steel Products).

Bend Test
Many welding codes require bend tests as part of the testing required to qualify welders and welding procedures specifications (WPSs). The concept of a bend test for welds is simple: two plates are welded together and a flat strap of metal is cut from the welded plates. Next, the flat strap of a prescribed size is bent into a U-shape, stretching the material on the outer surface of the "U," while compressing the material on the inside surface.
The purpose is to make certain the weld and the base metal are properly fused, and that the weld metal and the heat affected zone (HAZ) have appropriate mechanical properties.
Although bend tests appear to be simple, any number of things can cause good welding procedure specifications or good welders to fail. The person responsible for accepting or rejecting test results must understand those factors, and know how to correct for any that are causing inappropriate failure.
Bend specimens have been called "a poor man's tensile test." Although it will not show the quantitative values associated with a tensile test, a bend test will demonstrate both the quality of the weld and its overall ductility. Usually, bend tests are designed so that the outer surface of the specimen is stretched to a ductility level that approximates the minimum percent elongation required in a tensile test. When defects exist in materials strained to these limits, the material tears locally. When tearing exceeds a specific limit, the specimen fails.

Nick Break Test

The Nick Break test is useful for determining the internal quality of the weld metal. This test reveals various internal defects (if present), such as slag inclusions, gas pockets, lack of fusion, and oxidized or burned metal. The specimen for a nick-break test is notched on two sides at the center of the weld and then the specimen is broken by a sharp blow. Examination of the exposed surfaces will indicate any inclusions, lack of fusion, or other similar defects that extend through that section of the weld through which the break progresses.

Saturday, May 1, 2010

Hommies trip to Melaka...

Gamba time makan2 at wedding hall

This is our first time visiting melaka together just in the first place just to attend Mona's sister wedding at Masjid tanah...but, before that...i just received invitation in da morning before we went there...haha..adil lambat bgtau maa....seb baik xde, we start our journey at 2pm due to unavoided situation where we all didnt bring camera for the trip...that needed adil to take his company camera....hahaha...ape2 la 330pm, we arrived at Masjid ok...our stomach dah penuh ngan angin...after salam2 with his parent..trus g amik makanan...ape la ktorg..but that time few people doing slamba jela...after chit chat and photo session at the weeding hall...Mona ask to stay at his late grandfather house...haha..for us is no need segan lak nak datang umah time org penat after kenduri...then just 'what if we lepak2 and solat at Masjid gangs vote just to lepak2 at surau..lagepon bagus what..meriahkan surau kan...

so, bab solat done..hehe..b4 that..hehe..i've made an investment (pelaburan) at surau place...hehehe..sory beb..perut not so comfortable...hehehe..butterflies in my stomach..hehe

huh ..lega after big investment...then we went for jalan2 n photo session at 'sawah' area...actually ex kampung now just buy rise at shop..hehehe...xde dah nak tanam sendiri..hehe...for me, i just want to catch fist at bendang area..coz didnt have that opputunity after posing here n there...we siap2 mau g umbai where mona voluntarry want to belanja ikan bakar or sotong bakar...terliur gua

journey form Masjid Tanah to Umbai barely take 2 hours...due to traffic jamm...demmit...lucky for me coz i'm just a co adil n me just released tension due to jamm by karok all da was fun to karok while other look like tension and we like crazy people shounting n make funny face with ecah others..choi...hahak.. sampai at umbai..trus cari meja..then we order...(im just waiting at table la...yang order kucai n laen2)...shocked they ordered 2 siakap, 2 jenahak, 4 kilos sotong aka squid, kepah , n pari like sial gler makan banyak camtu..haha,...but most important things that we enjoyed that night and definitely we will have that makan besar next time..hoho..

Friday, April 30, 2010

Hari Pekerja

...huhu....hari ini hari basiclly mmg tuk org yang bekerja...duduk rumah rehatkan badan dan minda sebelom dipergunakan pada minggu hadapan..xtau nak update ape lage...maybe nak cerita pengalaman semasa di lautan yang terbentang luas yang dimana terdapat pelbagai ragam manusia yang meninggalkan orang yang tersayang untuk mencari rezeki...kehidupan yang jauh dari pandangan hijau rumput...hehe...tapi hari tak tau nak wat ape..tapi cam rasa nak g main go kart or test drive kete honda city lak..then leh update comment pasal honda city... update pasal yang penah di test drive :

1) ford Spectron (van) tahun 1988...mmg oldskoll tapi van nie aku penah wat racing ngan mmber lepas balik kerja mase kerja part time before masuk UTP...pacuan belakang ngan kapasity engin 1800cc...
2) Wira 1.3 Aeroback - kereta nie sangat bagus dari segi maintenance,...xbanyak ragam...aku just penah cecah 150km/h je kete okey la..ntuk kete 1.3...nak g laju2 bahaya sangat ngan spec standard...huhu..
3) Opel Forentira...kereta 4WD nie mmg berat...capasity engin 2200cc ..nampak lembam bile naek bukit..minyak mahal..then maintenance sangat mahal..hehe...skali rosak beriban kene..
4) Mazda Premacy - kereta yang bagus..engine senyap...tapi xbrapa laju coz kereta MPV..tapi penah wat rpm sampai 6 lebih,.,nak dekat 7..boleh tahan jugak la...

kereta2 laen

5) E240 2600cc V6
6) S350 3700cc V6
7) Myvi
8) Kancil
9) Civic 1.8 I-vtec
10) Persona
11) Saga BLM
12) Vios
13) Iswara
14) volvo 850
15) Waja
16) Ixora
17) Kia Sephia

yang laen xbrapa ingat la...len kali nak review kereta yang penah bawak...hehehe...xda kereta bmw dalam list..hehehehe..

Usha BMW 318


huhu..this week adalah hari yang paling biase bagi saye...xda ke offshore mahupon ke duk opis...tapi smlm hari yang paling worse dalam sejarah kesesakan lalu lintas di kawasan KLCC...hampeh betul..coz jammed dlam jarak 1 kilometer amek mase 1jam setengah..hampeh tahap cipan la...dan insiden2 hampir melanggar kereta org..adegan hon menehon kereta orang...hehehe....hampeh sgt pagi nie cuti..nasib baik xde la sangat tension nak bangun awal walaupun smlm ade demo silat di pagi2 da plan nak tgk kereta BMW 318 .1900cc..tahun 2001 ...mmg dah tgk kat iklan pagi nie dapat la tgk 2 kereta BMW 318 -satu merah n satu hitam...

so first tgk la kereta BMW color hitam..mmg cun..dier dah tukar lampu depan n belakang...harga dalam dah buka n start engine kereta..bunyi ade out skit..mybe dier wat piping ke..tpi mmg cun la color hitam n tailgate light dier..tpi xbes coz dier paki tau la kete tuh cam ade bau xbes la..xtau owner before this makan dalam kete ke..n nmpk cam da luntur tnye dealer tuh..dowpayment dalam rm7k la..termasuk insurance, isnpection fee (puspakom)..hoho..yang xbes nyer bulan2 rm 1170..hoho..mmg kene save duit aku pon ckap la kat dier...nnti aku pkir balik..coz bnda mahal la..then dier maa..kene pkai kete bes...hampeh tul apek nie..byk cakap la...aku hempok aku blah camtu la..nie link kat kalu korg nak review advertisement psal kete nie ..

lepas tu aku lalu lage kedai area2 seri kembangan la..then nampak bmw color merah..mmg cun ape lage trus je tnye tokey kedai...tokey nie mmg peramah la..standard la apek jual kete..mulut bnyak manis..tpi pelik diorg nie xkene kencing manis lak..hahaha..mybe gula dah g kat mulut aku trus tnye dier kete bmw color merah..mmg harga plate cun wey 9393..millage dalam 120k..kete da 9 thun la...harga dalam RM73k..mmg antara murah la..then ade dvd changer lage..ade monitor skrin..then dealer tuh trus buka pintu n bonet kereta..mmg bersih la engine dier..hehe...ok la kalu nak pkai..hehe..gamba kete color merah cam dekat atas..hehe..detail psal kete korg leh tgk kat this link dier

so aku pon terpkir2 mau beli ke tak..coz aku rasa bmw nie maintenace agak mahal n kereta pon da tua dlm 9 tahun..tapi mmg cun kalu sape2 ade bace blog aku nie..leh bgi comment la ...patut ke aku beli ke camni..coz aku pon xsure nak beli ke tak lage..depend on fmly support gak la..gaji lepas la..cuma agak cukup makan bulan2 nie..heheh

Friday, April 16, 2010

Vios oh vios

huhuhu..arini bab kereta..coz smlm dpat test drive kereta vios 1.5G..pergh..bes gak la...stering kete cam bwah skit dari merc la..cuma pecutan ade lambat skit..huhu...yang penting dapat try bawak kete dah puas hati...nak beli kene pikir banyak coz keje area KL mmg xberbaloi spend duit kat wira da cukup tuk jalan2 kat area cakap jela kat dealer tuh..kalu nak beli sy contact..hehehe..pdahal xnak pon beli walaupon da offer rm2k cash rebate..hehehe..the malam tu pak cik saya datang umah bwak kete exora dier trus pass kunci kat aku...g la bawak kete...test ape lage..test jela da tuan punya smlm dapat bwak 2 kete baru..hehehe..happy nyer dapat test drive..hehehe....psst..xsangka mazda premacy kepunyaan emak boleh pecut smli rpm 6k-7k..cepat lak..hehehe...

Start berbelog..

Salam, dah la tak nie nak start balik la..nak mengisi mase lapang dengan aktiviti2 yang berfaedah sedkit..hehe..kene wat ceter bes nnti..this week baru balik dari next post boleh la cerita skit psal pengalaman di offshore....hehe